Linux has a big impact on our Lives. At least, your android phone has Linux kernel on it. However, getting started with Linux just make you discomfort for the first time. Because on Linux, you usually should use terminal commands instead of just clicking the launcher icon (as you did on Windows). But don’t worry, We will give you basic Linux (unix) commands & important commands that will help you get started.

 

Ubuntu Reference

Privileges
sudo command – run command as root
sudo -s – open a root shell
sudo -s -u user – open a shell as user
sudo -k – forget sudo passwords
gksudo command – visual sudo dialog (GNOME)
kdesudo command – visual sudo dialog (KDE)
sudo visudo – edit /etc/sudoers
gksudo nautilus – root file manager (GNOME)
kdesudo konqueror – root file manager (KDE)
passwd – change your password
Display
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart – restart X and
return to login (GNOME)
sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart – restart X and
return to login (KDE)
(file) /etc/X11/xorg.conf – display
configuration
sudo dexconf – reset xorg.conf configuration
Ctrl+Alt+Bksp – restart X display if frozen
Ctrl+Alt+FN – switch to tty N
Ctrl+Alt+F7 – switch back to X display
System Services¹
start service – start job service (Upstart)
stop service – stop job service (Upstart)
status service – check if service is running
(Upstart)
/etc/init.d/service start – start service
(SysV)
/etc/init.d/service stop – stop service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service status – check service
(SysV)
/etc/init.d/service restart – restart service
(SysV)
runlevel – get current runlevel
Package Management¹
apt-get update – refresh available updates
apt-get upgrade – upgrade all packages
apt-get dist-upgrade – upgrade with package
replacements; upgrade Ubuntu version
apt-get install pkg – install pkg
apt-get purge pkg – uninstall pkg
apt-get autoremove – remove obsolete packages
apt-get -f install – try to fix broken packages
dpkg –configure -a – try to fix broken
packages
dpkg -i pkg.deb – install file pkg.deb
(file) /etc/apt/sources.list – APT repository
list
Network
ifconfig – show network information
iwconfig – show wireless information
sudo iwlist scan – scan for wireless networks
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart – reset
network for manual configurations
(file) /etc/network/interfaces – manual
configuration
ifup interface – bring interface online
ifdown interface – disable interface
Special Packages
ubuntu-desktop – standard Ubuntu environment
kubuntu-desktop – KDE desktop
xubuntu-desktop – XFCE desktop
ubuntu-minimal – core Ubuntu utilities
ubuntu-standard – standard Ubuntu utilities
ubuntu-restricted-extras – non-free, but useful
kubuntu-restricted-extras – KDE of the above
xubuntu-restricted-extras – XFCE of the above
build-essential – packages used to compile
programs
linux-image-generic – latest generic kernel
image
linux-headers-generic – latest build headers
Firewall¹
ufw enable – turn on the firewall
ufw disable – turn off the firewall
ufw default allow – allow all connections by
default
ufw default deny – drop all connections by
default
ufw status – current status and rules
ufw allow port – allow traffic on port
ufw deny port – block port
ufw deny from ip – block ip adress
Application Names
nautilus – file manager (GNOME)
dolphin – file manager (KDE)
konqueror – web browser (KDE)
kate – text editor (KDE)
gedit – text editor (GNOME)
System
Recovery – Type the phrase “REISUB” while
holding down Alt and SysRq (PrintScrn) with
about 1 second between each letter. Your system
will reboot.
lsb_release -a – get Ubuntu version
uname -r – get kernel version
uname -a – get all kernel information

 

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Divanshu Administrator
IT Engineer , IT
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